The benefits of physical activity and exercise on physical, cognitive and daily life activities in aging adults
Due to increased longevity, degenerative diseases and disabilities have become one of the largest health-care problems. The state of well-being with a low risk of premature health problems is important for successful aging. Even if the impact of physical activity and exercise on performance of daily life activities is still poorly understood, it seems that regular training has important benefits on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy elderly population. Combined training, including strength, balance, flexibility exercises and activities that improve cardiorespiratory fitness, are important to ensure the independency of elderly people.
Angevaren, M., Aufdemkampe, G., Verhaar, H. J. J., Aleman, A., & Vanhees, L. (2008). Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 96 p. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub2
Anish, E. J. (2009). The senior athlete. In C. Madden, et al. (Eds.), Netter's sports medicine 1.ed. (pp 86-100), Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier.
Bean, J. F., Herman, S., Kiely, D. K., Frey, I. C., Leveille, S. G., Fielding, R. A., Frontera, W. R. (2004). Increased Velocity Exercise Speciﬁc to Task (InVEST) training: a pilot study exploring effects on leg power, balance, and mobility in community-dwelling older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(5), 799–804. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52222.x
Bilancio, G., Lombardi, C., Cirillo, M., Pišot, R., Rittweger, J. & De Santo, N. G. (2012). From space flights to osteoporosis. Annales Kinesiologiae, 3(1), 27-34. http://ojs.zrs-kp.si/index.php/AK/article/view/60
Cadore, E. L., Casas-Herrero, A., Zambom-Ferraresi, F., Idoate, F., Millor, N., Gómez, M., … Izquierdo, M. (2014). Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians. Age, 36(2), 773-785. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-013-9586-z
Campbell, A. J., Robertson, M. C., Gardner, M. M., Norton, R. N., Tilyard, M. W., & Buchner, D. M. (1997). Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home-based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. British Medical Journal, 315(7115), 1065–1069. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7115.1065
Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., Skinner, J. (2009). Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(7), 1510–1530. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c
Cress, M. E., Conley, K. E., Balding, S. L., Hansen-Smith, F., & Konczak, J. (1996). Functional training: muscle structure, function, and performance in older women. Journal of Orhopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 24(1), 4–10. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19220.127.116.11
Dimec Časar, T., Tušak, M. & Dolenc, P. (2015). Changes in mental health and satisfaction with life during physical inactivity induced by bed rest experiment. Annales Kinesiologiae, 6(1), 27-38. http://ojs.zrs-kp.si/index.php/AK/article/view/102
Dolenc, P., & Petrič, M. (2013). The effects of prolonged physical inactivity induced by bed rest on cognitive functioning in healthy male participants. Annales Kinesiologiae, 4(2), 129-143. http://ojs.zrs-kp.si/index.php/AK/article/view/13
Drev, A. (2010). V gibanju tudi v starosti. Retrieved from: https://www.nijz.si/sl/publikacije/v-gibanju-tudi-v-starosti
Earles, D. R., Judge, J. O., & Gunnarsson., O. T. (2001). Velocity training induces power specific adaptations in highly functioning older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(7), 872–878. https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.23838
Eurostat (2019). Population structure and aging. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Population_structure_and_ageing
Feskanich, D., Flint, A. J., & Willett, W. C. (2014). Physical activity and inactivity and risk of hip fracture in men. American Journal of Public Health, 104(4), 75-81. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301667
Frisard, M. I., Fabre, J. M, Russell, R. D., King, C. M., DeLany, J. P., Wood, R. H., & Ravussin, E. (2007). Physical activity level and physical functionality in nonagenarians compared to individuals aged 60–74 years. Journal of Gerontology, 62A(7), 783–788. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/62.7.783
Garatachea, N., Pareja-Galeano, H., Sanchis-Gomar, F., Santos-Lozano, A., Fiuza-Luces, C., … Lucia, A. (2015). Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Research, 18(1), 57-89. https://doi.org/10.1089/rej.2014.1623
Gerževič, M., & Plevnik, M. (2014). Priporočila za vadbo v tretjem življenjskem obdobju. In M. Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, R. Situlin & S. Pišot (Eds.), Telesna aktivnost in prehrana za kakovostno staranje [Physical activity and nutrition for quality aging] (pp 36-42). Retrieved from: http://www.zrs-kp.si/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Pangea_GIBANJE-ATTIVITA.pdf
Gerževič, M., Plevnik, M., & Marušič, U. (2017). Benefits of motor and/or cognitive exercise: A review with recommendation for the third age. Annales Kinesiologiae, 8(1), 34-49. http://ojs.zrs-kp.si/index.php/AK/article/view/141
Gheysen, F., Poppe, L., DeSmet, A., Swinnen, S., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., … Fias, W. (2018). Physical activity to improve cognition in older adults: can physical activity programs enriched with cognitive challenges enhance the effects? A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15, 63-76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0697-x
Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health - 65 years and above (2011). Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/physical-activity-recommendations-65years.pdf?ua=1
Gomez-Pinilla, F., Vaynman, S. & Ying, Z. (2011). Brain derived neurotropihic factor functions as a metabotrophin to mediate the effects of exercise on cognition. European Journal of Neuroscience, 33(3), 389-390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06524.x
Guadagni, M., Clark, C. M., Tyndall, A., Raneri, J.K., Parboosingh, J. S., Hogan, D. B., ... & Poulin, M. J. (2018). Effects of six-month aerobic intervention on sleep in healthy older adults in the brain in motion study: a pilot study. Journal of Alzheimer´s Disease Reports, 2(1), 229-238. https://doi.org/10.3233/ADR-180079
Hanson, E. D., Srivastan, S. R., Agrawal, S., Menon, K. S., Delmonico, M. J., Wang, M. Q., & Hurley, B. F. (2009). Effects of strength training on physical function: influence of power, strength, and body composition. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2627-2637. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b2297b
Henwood, T. R., & Taaffe, D. R. (2005). Improved physical performance in older adults undertaking a short-term programme of high velocity resistance training. Gerontology, 51(2), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.1159/000082195
Herold, F., Törpel, A., Schega, L., & Müeler, N. G. (2019). Functional and/or structural brain changes in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive improvements – a systematic review. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 16(10), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11556-019-0217-2
Hillman, C., Erickson, K. I. & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(1), 58-65. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2298
Holviala, J., Häkkinen, A., Alen, M., Salliner, J., Kramer, W., & Häkkinen, K. (2014). Effects of prolonged and maintenance strength training on force production, walking, and balance in aging women and men. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(1), 224-233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01470.x
Hunter, G. R., McCarthy, J. P., & Bamman, M. M. (2004). Effects of resistance training on older adults. Sports Medicine, 34(5), 329-348. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434050-00005
Marušič, U., Kavcic, V., Giordani, B., Gerževič, M., Meeusen, R. & Pišot, R. (2015). Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult man: Effects on gait performance. Psychology and Aging, 30(2), 334-340. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/pag0000021
Marušič, U., Giordani B., Moffat, S. D., Petrič, M., Dolenc, P., Pišot, R., & Kavcic, V. (2017). Computerized cognitive training during physical inactivity improves executive functions in older adults. Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition, 25(1), 49-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2016.1263724
Marušič, U., Verghese, J., & Mahoney, J. R. (2018). Cognitive-based interventions to improve mobility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 19(6), 484-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.02.002
McDermott, Y. A., & Mernitz, H. (2004). Exercise and the Elderly: Guidelines and Practical Prescription Applications for the Clinician Case Studies and Commentary. Journal of Clinical Outcome Management, 11(2), 117-128. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/kine_fac/51
Miszko, T. A., Cress, M. E., Slade, J. M., Covey, C. J., Agrawal, S. K., & Doerr, C. E. (2003). Effect of strength and power training on physical function in community-dwelling older adults. The Journal of Gerontology Biological Science & Medical Science, 58(2), 171–175. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/58.2.M171
Montgomery, P., & Dennis, J. A. (2002). Physical exercise for sleep problems in adults aged 60+. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003404
Müller, P., Aye, N., Schmicker, M., Dordevic, M., Kaufman, J., Hökelmann, A., & Müller, N. G. (2017). Dancing or FitnessSport? The effects of two training programs on hippocampal plasticity and balance abilities in healthy seniors. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00305
Northey, J. M., Cherbuin, N., Pumpa, K. L., Smee, D. J., & Rattray, B. (2018). Exercise interventions for cognitive function in adults older than 50: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Bitish Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(3), 154-160. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096587
Paravlić, A., Marušič, U., Gerževič, M., Urzi, F., & Šimunič, B. (2016). The effects of different exercise-based interventions on functional fitness of older adults. Annales Kinesiologiae, 7(2), 117-137. http://ojs.zrs-kp.si/index.php/AK/article/view/127
Paterson, D. H., Govindasamy, D., Vidmar, M., Cunningham, D. A., & Koval, J. J. (2004). Longitudinal study of determinants of dependence in an elderly population. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 52(10), 1632–1638. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52454.x
Paterson, D. H., Jones, G. R., & Rice, C. L. (2007). Ageing and physical activity: evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 32(2E), 69–108. https://doi.org/10.1139/H07-111
Peeters, G., van Gellecum, Y. R., van Uffelen, J. G. Z., Burton, N. W., & Brown, W. J. (2014). Contribution of house and garden work to the association between physical activity and well-being in young, mid-aged and older women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(12), 996-1001. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091103
Pišot, R., Marušič, U., Biolo, G., Mazzucco, S., Lazzer, S., Grassi, B., ... Šimunič, B. (2016). Greater loss in muscle mass and function but smaller metabolic alterations in older compared with younger men following 2 wk of bed rest and recovery. Journal of Applied Physiology, 120(8), 922-929. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00858.2015
Raina, P., Waltner-Toews, D., Bonnett, B., Woodward, C., & Abernathy, T. (1999). Influence of companion animals on the physical and psychological health of older people: an analysis of a one-year longitudinal study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 47(3), 323-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb02996.x
Rehfeld, K., Lüders, A., Hökelmann, A., Lessmann, V., Kaufmann, J., Brigadski, T., ... Müller, N. G. (2018). Dance training is superior to repetitive physical exercise in inducing brain plasticity in the elderly. PLoS ONE, 13(7), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196636
Reid, K. F., Pasha, E., Doros, G., Clark, D. J., Patten, C., Phillips, E. M., ... Fielding, R. A. (2014). Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility‑limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fibre contractile properties. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2728-2
Rowe, J. H., & Kahn, R. L. (1997). Successful aging. Gerontologist, 37(4), 433–440. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/37.4.433
Shephard, R. (1997). Aging, Physical Activity, and Health. Champaign, IL (USA), Human Kinetics.
Simonsick, E. M., Guralnik, J. M., Volpato, S., Balfour, J., & Fried, L. P. (2005). Just get out the door! Importance of walking outside the home for maintaining mobility: findings from the womens health and aging study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 53(2), 198–203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53103.x
Skelton, D. A., Young, A., Greig, C. A., & Malbut, K. E. (1995). Effects of resistance training on strength, power, and selected functional abilities of women aged 75 and older. Journal of American Geriatric Society 43(10), 1081–1087. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1995.tb07004.x
Slutsky, A. B. & Etnier, J. L. (2016). Caloric restriction, physical activity, and cognitive performance: A review of evidence and discussion of the potential mediators of BDNF and TrkB. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1223422
Spiduso, W. W., Francis, K. L., & MacRea, P. (2005). Physical dimensions of aging. Campaing, IL (USA), Human Kinetics.
Strawbridge, W. J., Cohen, R. D., Shema, S. J., & Kaplan, G. A. (1997). Successful aging: predictors and associated activities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 144(2), 134-144. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008900
Taylor, D. (2014). Physical activity is medicine for older adults. Postrgraduate Medical Journal, 90, 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131366
Thais de Lima, R., Corrêa Kanan, J. H., Augustin Schwanke, C. H., & Mânica da Cruz, I. B. (2013). The effect of aerobic training on healthy elderly women’s walking speed, step length and habitual physical activity. Pan American Journal of Aging Research, 1(2), 32-39. Retrieved from: http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/pajar/article/view/13287
Tseng, B. S., Marsh, D. R., Hamilton, M. T., & Booth, F. W. (1995). Strength and aerobic training attenuate muscle wasting and improve resistance to the development of disability with aging. The Journals of Gerontology, 50A (Special Issue), 113-119. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/50A.Special_Issue.113
Tyndall, A., Clark, C. M., Anderson, T., Hogan, D. M., Hill, M. D., Longman, R. S., & Poulin, M. J. (2018). Protective effects of exercise on cognition and brain health in older adults. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 46(4), 215-223. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000161
Urzi, F., Marušič, U., Ličen, S., & Bužan, E. (2019). Effects of elastic resistance training on functional performance and myokines in older women – a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(7), 830-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2019.01.151
Wanderley, F. A. C., Silva, G., Marques, E., Oliveira, J., Mota, J., & Carvalho, J. (2011). Associations between objectively assessed physical activity levels and ﬁtness and self-reported health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. Quality of Life Research, 20(9), 1371–1378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-011-9875-x
Whalley, L. J., Deary, I. J., Appelton, C. L., & Starr, J. M. (2004). Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging. Aging Research Review, 3(4), 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001
Copyright (c) 2019 Dorjana Zerbo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Open Access Policy and Copyright
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs license (CC BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors grant the publisher commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.