BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS): THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS
The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity) and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation.This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure) and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time). The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.
Abe, T., Matsuyama, T., Sekido, S., Yamaguchi, I., Yoshida, S., & Kameya, T. (2002). Chlorophyll-deficient mutants of rice demonstrated that deletion of a DNA fragment by heavy-ion irradiation. Journal of Radiation Research, 43, S157–S161.
Alscher, R. G., Donahue, J. L., & Cramer, C. L. (1997). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: relationships in green cells. Physiologia Plantarum, 100(2), 224–233.
Amor, Y., Babiychuk, E., Inzé, D., & Levine, A. (1998). The involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the oxidative stress responses in plants. FEBS Letters, 440(1–2), 1–7.
Angelini, G., Ragni, P., Esposito, D., Giardi, P., Pompili, M. L., Moscardelli, R., et al. (2001). A device to study the effect of space radiation on photosynthetic organisms. Physica Medica, 17(Supp 1), 267–268.
Bayonove, J., Burg, M., Delpoux, M., & Mir, A. (1984). Biological changes observed on rice and biological and genetic changes observed on Tobacco after space flight in the orbital station Salyut-7 (Biobloc III experiment). Advances in Space Research, 4(10), 97–101.
Cheng, T. S., & Chandlee, J. M. (1999). The structural, biochemical, and genetic characterization of a new radiation-induced variegated leaf mutant of soybean Glycine. Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China. Part B, 23(1), 27–37
De Micco, V., Arena C., Pignalosa, D., & Durante M. (2011). Effects of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on plants. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 50(1), 1–19.
Doucet-Chabeaud, G., Godon, C., Brutesco, C., de Murcia, G., & Kazmaier, M. (2001). Ionising radiation induces the expression of PARP-1 and PARP-2 genes in Arabidopsis. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 265(6), 954–963.
Drysdale, A. E., Ewert, M. K., & Hanford, A. J. (2003). Life support approaches for Mars missions. Advances in Space Research, 31(1), 51–61.
Esnault, M.-A., Legue, F., & Chenal, C. (2010). Ionizing radiation: Advances in plant response. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(3), 231–237.
Esposito, D., Margonelli, A., Pace, E., Giardi, M. T., Faraloni, C., Torzillo, G., et al. (2006). The effect of ionizing radiation on photosynthetic oxygenic microorganisms for survival in space flight revealed by automatic photosystem II-based biosensors. Microgravity Science and Technology, 18(3), 215–218.
Farkas J. (1988). Irradiation of dry food ingredients. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Fesenko, S. V., Alexakhin, R. M., Balonov, M. I., Bogdevich, M. I., Howard, B. J., Kashparov, V. A., et al. (2006). Twenty years’ application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned. Journal of Radiological Protection, 26(4), 351–359.
Flagler, J., & Poincelot, R. P. (1994). People-plant relationships: Setting research priorities. New York: Food Products Press.
Foyer, C. H., & Mullineaux, P. (1994). Causes of photooxidative stress and amelioration of defense systems in plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Foyer, C. H., & Noctor, G. (2005). Oxidant and antioxidant signalling in plants: a re-evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant, Cell & Environment, 28(8), 1056–1071.
Giardi, M. T., Masojidek, J., & Godde, D. (1997). Discussion on the stresses affecting the turnover of the D1 reaction centre II protein. Physiologia Plantarum, 101(3), 635–642.
Hessen, D. O. (2008). Solar radiation and the evolution of life. In Espen Bjertness (Ed.), Solar Radiation and Human Health (pp 123–136). Oslo: The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
Hoff, J. E., Howe, J. M., & Mitchell, C. A. (1982). Development of selection criteria and their application in evaluation of CELSS candidate species. In B. Moore et al. (Eds.), Controlled Ecological Life Support System: First Principal Investigators meeting. Washington, DC: NASA-CP-2247.
Holst, R. W., & Nagel, D. J. (1997). Radiation effects on plants. In W. Wang, J. W. Gorsuch & J. S. Hughes (Eds.), Plants for environmental studies (pp 37–81). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
Kovàcs, E., Van Duren, J. P., Pitifer, L. A., Hoch, H. C., & Terhune, T. (1997). Effect of irradiation and storage on cell wall structure of golden delicious and empire apples. Acta Alimentaria, 26(2), 171–190.
Li, Y., Liu, M., Cheng, Z., & Sun, Y. (2007). Space environment induced mutations prefer to occur at polymorphic sites of rice genomes. Advances in Space Research, 40(4), 523–527.
Maity, J. P., Mishra, D., Chakraborty, A., Saha, A., Santra, S. C., & Chanda, S. (2005). Modulation of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and mung (Phaseolus mungo L.) by ionizing radiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 74(5), 391–394.
Mei, M., Deng, H., Lu, Y., Zhuang, C., Liu, Z., Qiu, Q., et al. (1994). Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants. Advances in Space Research, 14(10), 363–372.
Mei, M., Qiu, Y., Sun, Y., Huang, R., Yao, J., Zhang, Q., et al. (1998). Morphological and molecular changes of maize plants after seeds been flown on recoverable satellite. Advances in Space Research, 22(12), 1691–1697.
Mitchell, C. A., Dougher, T. A. O., Nielsen, S. S., Belury, M. A., & Wheeler, R. M. (1996). Costs of providing edible biomass for a balanced vegetation diet in a controlled ecological life support system. In H. Suge (Ed.), Plant in Space Biology (pp 245–254). Tohoku Univ: Inst. Genetic Ecology.
Palamine, M. T., Cureg, R. G. A., Marbella, L. J., Lapade, A. G., Domingo, Z. B., & Deocaris, C. C. (2005). Some biophysical changes in the chloroplasts of a Dracaena radiationmutant. Philippine Journal of Science, 134(2), 121.
Rea, G., Esposito, D., Damasso, M., Serafini, A., Margonelli, A., Faraloni, C., et al. (2008). Ionizing radiation impacts photochemical quantum yield and oxygen evolution activity of photosystem II in photosynthetic microorganisms. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 84(11), 867–877.
Real, A., Sundell-Bergman, S., Knowles, J. F., Woodhead, D. S., & Zinger, I. (2004). Effects of ionizing radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection. Journal of Radiological Protection, 24(4A), A123–A137.
Rozema, J., Staaij, J., Bjiorn, L. O., & Caldwell, M. (1997). UV-B as an environmental factor in plant life: stress and regulation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12(1), 22–28.
Salisbury, F. B., & Clark, M. A. (1996). Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets. Advances in Space Research, 18(4–5), 33–39.
Salisbury, F. B. (1997). Growing Super-Dwarf wheat in space station MIR. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 4(3–4), 155–166.
Salisbury, F. B. (1999). Growing crops for space explorers on the Moon, Mars, or in space. Advances in Space Biology and Medicine, 7, 131–162.
Salisbury, F. B., Dempster, W. F., Allen, J. P., Alling, A., Bubenheim, D., Nelson, M., et al. (2002). Light plants, and power for life support on Mars. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 8(3–4), 161–172.
Shikazono, N., Tanaka, A., Kitayama, S., Watanabe, H., & Tano, S. (2002). LET dependence of lethality in Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated by heavy ions. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 41(2), 159–162.
Sidorov, V. P. (1994). Cytogenic effect in Pinus sylvestris needle cells as a result of the Chernobyl accident radiation biology. Radioecology, 34(6), 847–851.
Stutte, G. W., Mackowiak, C. L., Yorio, N. C., & Wheeler, R. M. (1999). Theoretical and practical considerations of staggered crop production in a BLSS. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 6(4), 287–291.
Tibbitts, T. W., & Henninger, D. L. (1997). Food production in space: Challenges and perspectives. In: E. Goto et al. (Eds.), Plant Production in Closed Systems (pp 189–203). Netherlands: Kluwer Acad. Publ.
Waters, G. C., Olabi, A., Hunter, J. B, Dixon, M. A., & Lasseur, C. (2002). Bioregenerative food system cost based on optimized menus for advanced life support. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 8(3–4), 199–210.
Wei, L. J., Yang, Q., Xia, H. M., Furusawa, Y., Guan, S. H., & Xin, P., Sun, Y. Q. (2006). Analysis of cytogenetic damage in rice seeds induced by energetic heavy ions on-ground and after spaceflight. Journal of Radiation Research, 47(3–4), 273–278.
Wheeler, R. M., Mackowiak, C. L., Sager, J. C., Knott, W. M., & Berry, W. L. (1996). Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA’s biomass production chamber. Advances in Space Research, 18(4–5), 43–47.
Wheeler, R. M. (2003). Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: Effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index. Advances in Space Research, 31(1), 169–175.
Yu, Z. L. (2005). The progress of ion beam bioengineering in China. Solid State Phenomena, 107, 25–30.
Yu, X., Wu, H., Wei, L. J., Cheng, Z. L., Xin, P., Huang, C. L., et al. (2007). Characteristics of phenotype and genetic mutations in rice after spaceflight. Advances in Space Research, 40(4), 528–534.
Zaka, R., Vendecasteele, C. M., & Misset, M. T. (2002). Effects of low chronic doses of ionizing radiation on antioxidant enzymes and G6PDH activities in Stipa capillata (Poaceae). Journal of Experimental Botany, 53(376), 1979–1987.
Copyright (c) 2016 Carmen Arena, Veronica De Micco, Amalia Virzo De Santo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Open Access Policy and Copyright
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs license (CC BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors grant the publisher commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.