Characteristics of adolescents' active lifestyle in the city of Ljubljana

  • Marta Bon University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport
Keywords: adolescents, lifestyle, sport, Ljubljana, environment, correlates


Purpose: The aim of our study was to analyse the characteristics of the active lifestyle of adolescents and relations to some environmental correlates in the city of Ljubljana.

Methods: The characteristic of active lifestyle on the sample of 269 students of The Secondary School of Nursing Ljubljana (206 females, 63 men), aged 16-18 years) via an online questionnaire were evaluated. Descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test was used (at p < 0.05 - 5 %. level). In the second part, half-structured interviews were conducted, with former students of same school (no. 6); to evaluated their approach to physical education hours activities, their general active lifestyle and their evaluation of the environmental correlates factors: physical (facilities, equipment), social (social support and social norms) or institutional (policies).

Results: Results show that the majority of students (44.96 %) were physically active at least two to three times per week. The students partly agree (3.7/5) that sports activities play an essential role in their general lifestyle. Furthermore, they care about leading a healthy lifestyle (3.7/5), eating healthy food (3.7/5). Students evaluated physical factors as appropriate (in municipality 76.15%, at the state level 71.49%), and social (parents) support as appropriate. The former students are on the opinion that physical environmental factors around their school (facilities, equipment) are optimal, but they regret, that they were not used enough; not during PE lessons, neither in leisure time.

Conclusion: Based on our results, we propose better cooperation between all included factors, which can support improvement of active lifestyle of adolescents.



Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. R. (2006). The Physical Activity Patterns of European Youth with Reference to Methods of Assessment. Sports Medicine, 36(12), 1067–1086.

Aubert, S., Barnes, J., Abdeta, C., Abi Nader, P., Adeniyi, A., Aguilar-Farias, N., … S. Tremblay, M. (2018). Global Matrix 3.0 Physical activity report card grades for children and youth: results and analysis from 49 countries. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 15(s2), S251–S273.

Bauman, A. E., Reis, R. S., Sallis, J. F., Wells, J. C., Loos, R. J. F., Martin, B. W., & Group, L. P. A. S. W. (2012). Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not? The Lancet, 380(9838), 258–271.

Bon, M., Kolenc, M., Peršolja, B., & Tomc, G. (2008). Primer izhodišč strateškega načrta na področju športa do leta 2012–Mestna občina Ljubljana [An example of starting points of a strategic plan for sport until 2012-the urban municipality of Ljubljana]. Šport: revija za teoretična in praktična vprašanja športa, 56(1/2), 8-13.

Bon, M., Lavrič, A., Gradišar-Saifet, K., & Kambic, T. (2019). Telesna aktivnost dijakov Srednje zdravstvene šole Ljubljana [Physical activity of the students of the Secondary School of Nursing Ljubljana]. Šport: revija za teoretična in praktična vprašanja športa, 67(2-3), 156-160.

Brettschneider, W.-D., & Naul, R. (2004). Study on young people’s lifestyles and sedentariness and the role of sport in the context of education and as a means of restoring the balance. Final report. Paderborn, Directorate-General for Education and Culture, Unit Sport.

Brodersen, N. H., Steptoe, A., Boniface, D. R., & Wardle, J. (2007). Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socio-economic differences. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 140-144. Retrieved from

Dalene, K. E., Anderssen, S. A., Andersen, L. B., Steene-Johannessen, J., Ekelund, U., Hansen, B. H., & Kolle, E. (2018). Secular and longitudinal physical activity changes in population-based samples of children and adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(1), 161–171.

Doak, C. M., Visscher, T. L. S., Renders, C. M., & Seidell, J. C. (2006). The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obesity Reviews, 7(1), 111–136.

Dobbins, M., Husson, H., DeCorby, K., & LaRocca, R. L. (2013). School‐based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).

Dunton, G. F., Cousineau, M., & Reynolds, K. D. (2010). The intersection of public policy and health behavior theory in the physical activity arena. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(s1), S91–S98.

Farooq, M. A., Parkinson, K. N., Adamson, A. J., Pearce, M. S., Reilly, J. K., Hughes, A. R., … Reilly, J. J. (2018). Timing of the decline in physical activity in childhood and adolescence: Gateshead Millennium Cohort Study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(15), 1002–1006.

Ferreira, I., Van Der Horst, K., Wendel‐Vos, W., Kremers, S., Van Lenthe, F. J., & Brug, J. (2007). Environmental correlates of physical activity in youth–a review and update. Obesity Reviews, 8(2), 129–154.

Fletcher, G. F., Balady, G., Blair, S. N., Blumenthal, J., Caspersen, C., Chaitman, B., ... & Pollock, M. L. (1996). Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans: a statement for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation, 94(4), 857-862.

Gunter, K. B., Almstedt, H. C., & Janz, K. F. (2012). Physical activity in childhood may be the key to optimizing lifespan skeletal health. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 40(1), 13-21.

Gustafson, S. L., & Rhodes, R. E. (2006). Parental correlates of physical activity in children and early adolescents. Sports Medicine, 36(1), 79–97.

Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., Ekelund, U., … Wells, J. C. (2012). Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380(9838), 247–257.

Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 40.

Kimm, S. Y. S., Glynn, N. W., Kriska, A. M., Barton, B. A., Kronsberg, S. S., Daniels, S. R., … Liu, K. (2002). Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(10), 709–715.

Lima, R. A., Pfeiffer, K., Larsen, L. R., Bugge, A., Moller, N. C., Anderson, L. B., & Stodden, D. F. (2017). Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 14(6), 440–447.

Marteau, T. M., Hollands, G. J., & Fletcher, P. C. (2012). Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science, 337(6101), 1492–1495.

Matson-Koffman, D. M., Brownstein, J. N., Neiner, J. A., & Greaney, M. L. (2005). A site-specific literature review of policy and environmental interventions that promote physical activity and nutrition for cardiovascular health: what works? American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(3), 167–193.

Mestna občina Ljubljana (2018). Strategija športa v Mestni občini Ljubljana [Strategic Plan for Sport in the City of Ljubljana until 2028]. Retrieved from

Morton, K. L., Atkin, A. J., Corder, K., Suhrcke, M., & Van Sluijs, E. M. F. (2016). The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed‐studies systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 17(2), 142–158.

Powell, K. E., & Pratt, M. (1996). Physical activity and health. BMJ 313, 126-127.

Reilly, J. J. (2016). When does it all go wrong? Longitudinal studies of changes in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity across childhood and adolescence. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 14(1), 1–6.

Telama, R., Nupponen, H., & Laakso, L. (2007). Determinants and correlates of physical activity among European children and adolescents. In W.-D. Brettschneider & R. Naul (Eds.), Obesity in Europe: young people's physical activity and sedentary lifestyles (pp. 265-279). Berlin, Oxford: Peter Lang

Van Hecke, L., Loyen, A., Verloigne, M., van der Ploeq, H. P., Lakerveld, J., Brug, J., … Deforche, B. (2016). Variation in population levels of physical activity in European children and adolescents according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity,13:70.

Volmut, T., Pišot, R., & Šimunič, B. (2013). Objectively measured physical activity in children aged from 5 to 8 years. Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 52(1), 9-18.

World Health Organization (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Retrieved from

How to Cite
Bon, M. (2020). Characteristics of adolescents’ active lifestyle in the city of Ljubljana. Annales Kinesiologiae, 10(2), 87-98.