Nutritional intake of Slovenian semi-professional handball players
Aim: Handball is a highly popular team sport, both in Slovenia and globally. The performance during team sport matches is influenced by numerous factors, amongst others there is nutrition whose influence is lesser known, particularly since diet is often uncontrolled. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether Slovenian handball players, on basis of their anthropometric data and nutritional recommendations, have adequate nutritional intakes of energy and macronutrients.
Methods: Two Slovenian handball teams with male and female players (17 males and 9 females) who are part of the 1A national league, were assessed through a 7-day food diary to define their nutritional intake in three different conditions for males (on their training days, match days and days off) and in two conditions for females (on their training days and days off). Basal anthropometric data were measured by standard methods and the body composition by a bioelectrical impedance scale. The results were statistically analysed with IBM SPSS programme, using the repeated measures ANOVA model.
Results: Both female and male handball players show insufficient amounts of energy intake, based on the most recent nutritional intake recommendations for team sports. Moreover, the intake of carbohydrates is too low for both female and male handball players, and the intake of fat is too high.
Conclusion: The analysis of the initial nutritional intake and the comparison with the recommendation shows that the male handball players do not have an optimal diet with proper intake of both energy and macronutrients. The energy intake is insufficient also in female players. Adjusting the nutritional intake in a way to make it more balanced and tuned to the training schedule, would support a better health and performance.
Ainsworth, B. E., Haskell, W. L., Herrmann, S. D., Meckes, N., Bassett, D. R., Tudor-Locke, C., … Leon, A. S. (2011). Compendium of physical activities: A second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(2), 1575–1581. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12
American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine, Rodriquez, N. R., DiMarco, N. M., & Langley, S. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(3), 709–731. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86
Burke, L. M., & Cox, G. (2010). The complete guide to food for sports performance: A guide to peak nutrition for your sport (3rd ed.). Crows Nest: Allen and Unwin.
Burke, L. M., Hawley, J. A., Wong, S. H. S., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2011). Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(1), 17–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.585473
Campbell, B., Kreider, R. B., Ziegenfuss, T., La Bounty, P., Roberts, M., Burke, D., … Antonio, J. (2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-4-8
Chaouachi, A., Brughelli, M., Levin, G., Boudhina, N. B. B., Cronin, J., & Chamari, K. (2009). Anthropometric, physiological and performance characteristics of elite team-handball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(2), 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802448731
Clark, M., Reed, D. B., Crouse, S. F., & Armstrong, R. B. (2003). Pre- and post-season dietary intake, body composition, and performance indices of NCAA division I female soccer players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13(3), 303–319. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.13.3.303
Consensus Statement. (2006). Nutrition for football: The FIFA/F-MARC Consensus Conference. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(7), 663–664. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500482461
Cunningham, J. J. (1980). A reanalysis of the factors influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33(11), 2372–2374. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/33.11.2372
Debeljak, P., Debeljak, D., Hlastan-Ribič, C., Salobir, K., & Pokorn, D. (2004). Referenčne vrednosti za vnos hranil [Reference values for nutrient intakes]. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za zdravje.
Fink, H. H., & Mikesky, A. E. (2015). Practical applications in sports nutrition. Jonas & Bartlett Learning.
Ghobadi, H., Rajabi, H., Farzad, B., Bayati, M., & Jeffreys, I. (2013). Anthropometry of World-Class elite handball players according to the playing position: reports from Men’s Handball World Championship 2013. Journal of Human Kinetics, 39(1), 213–220. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2013-0084
Hickson, J. F. Jr., Johnson, C. W., Schrader, J. W., & Stockton, J. E. (1987). Promotion of athletes’ nutritional intake by a university foodservice facility. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 87, 926–927.
Holway, F. E., & Spriet, L. L. (2011). Sport-specific nutrition: Practical strategies for team sports. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), S115–S125. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.605459
International Olympic Committee. (2011). IOC consensus statement on sports nutrition 2010. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), S3–S4. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.619349
Jacobs, I., Westlin, N., Karlsson, J., Rasmusson, M., & Houghton, B. (1982). Muscle glycogen and diet in elite soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 48(3), 297–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00430219
Jenner, S. L., Buckley, G. L., Belski, R., Devlin, B. L., & Forsyth, A. K. (2019). Dietary intakes of professional and semi-professional team sport athletes do not meet sport nutrition recommendations - a systematic literature review. Nutrients, 11(5), 1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051160
Kreider, R. B., Wilborn, C. D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A. L., Collins, R., … Antonio, J. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-7-7
Massuca, L., Branco, B., Miarka, B., & Fragoso, I. (2015). Physical fitness attributes of team-handball players are related to playing position and performance level. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(1), e24712. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.24712
Michalsik, L., Madsen, K., & Aagaard, P. (2013). Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(7), 595–607. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1358713
Molina-López, J. M., Molina J. M., Chirosa, L. J., Florea, D., Sáez, L., Jiménez, J., ... Planells, E. (2013). Implementation of a nutrition education program in a handball team; consequences on nutritional status. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 28(4), 1065–1076. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6600
Rico-Sanz, J. (1998). Body composition and nutritional assessments in soccer. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 8(2), 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.8.2.113
Rodriquez, N. R., DiMarco, N. M., Langley, S., American Dietetic association, Dietitians of Canada, & American College of Sports Medicine. (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(3), 509–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.01.005
Silva, A. M., Matias, C. N., Santos, D. A., Thomas, D., Bosy-Westphal, A., Müller, M. J., … Sardinha, Lu. B. (2017). Compensatory changes in energy balance regulation over one athletic season. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(6), 1229–1235. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001216
Sporiš, G., Vuleta, D., Vuleta, D. Jr., & Milovanović, D. (2010). Fitness profiling in handball: Physical and physiological characteristics of elite players. Collegium Antropologicum, 34(3), 1009–1014. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/59364
Spronk, I., Heaney, S. E., Prvan, T., & O’Connor, H. T. (2015). Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in elite athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(3), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0034
Šibila, M., & Pori, P. (2009). Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Handball Players. Collegium Antropologicum, 33(4), 1079–1086. Retrieved from https://hrcak.srce.hr/51458
Tanita Corporation of America Inc. (2013). Tanita Technical Bulletin: Visceral Fat Measurement. Retrieved from https://www.tanita.com/data/File/AdditionalResearch/VisceralFatMeasurmentp1.pdf?rev=72DE
Thomas, D., Erdman, K., & Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(3), 543–568. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000852
Weber, M. H., Kehl, C., & Fonseca Moreira, J. C. (2012). Comparison of the dietetic and anthropometric profile of handball athletes during a training period. Fiep Bulletin, 82, 209–212.
Copyright (c) 2020 Kaja Teraž, Cecil Meulenberg
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Open Access Policy and Copyright
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs license (CC BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors grant the publisher commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.